Published: April 5, 2022
Woodford J, Gillman A, Jenvey P, Roberts J, Woolley S, Barber BE, Fernandez M, Rose S, Thomas P, Anstey NM, McCarthy JS. Positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in experimental human malaria, a prospective cohort study. Sci Rep. 2022 Apr 5;12(1):5696. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-09748-y. PMID: 35383257; PMCID: PMC8983718.
Cerebral malaria is the most serious manifestation of severe falciparum malaria. Sequestration of infected red blood cells and microvascular dysfunction are key contributing processes. Whether these processes occur in early stage disease prior to clinical manifestations is unknown. To help localize and understand these processes during the early stages of infection, we performed 18-F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging in volunteers with Plasmodium falciparum induced blood stage malaria (IBSM) infection, and compared results to individuals with P. vivax infection, in whom coma is rare. Seven healthy, malaria-naïve participants underwent imaging at baseline, and at early symptom onset a median 9 days following inoculation (n = 4 P. falciparum, n = 3 P. vivax). Participants with P. falciparum infection demonstrated marked lability in radiotracer uptake across all regions of the brain, exceeding expected normal variation (within subject coefficient of variation (wCV): 14.4%) compared to the relatively stable uptake in participants with P. vivax infection (wCV: 3.5%). No consistent imaging changes suggestive of microvascular dysfunction were observed in either group. Neuroimaging in early IBSM studies is safe and technically feasible, with preliminary results suggesting that differences in brain tropism between P. falciparum and P. vivax may occur very early in infection.